Diarrhea is a bowel movement (defecation), with feces as a liquid or semi-liquid, thus the water content in the stool more than 100-200 ml of normal defecation once (Hendarwanto, 1999).
Diarrhea is the state of the frequency of bowel movements more than 4 times in infants and more than 3 times in children with watery stool consistency, can be green or can be mixed with mucus and blood (Ngastiyah, 1997).
Etiology - Diarrhea
- Infection Factors
- Enteral infections, gastrointestinal infections are a major cause of diarrhea, including infectious bacteria (Vibrio, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Aeromonas, etc.), viral infections (enterovirus, adenovirus, Rotavirus, Astrovirus, etc.) , parasitic infections (E. hystolytica, G.lamblia, T. hominis) and fungi (C. albicans).
- Parenteral infections; an infection outside the digestive system that can cause diarrhea, such as: acute otitis media, tonsillitis, bronchopneumonia, encephalitis and so forth.
- Malabsorption Factors :
Carbohydrate malabsorption: disaccharides (lactose intolerance, maltose and sucrose), monosaccharides (glucose intolerance, fructose and galactose). Lactose intolerance is the most important cause of diarrhea in infants and children. In addition it is also possible malabsorption of fat and protein.
- Food factor:
Diarrhea may occur due to eating spoiled food, toxic and allergic to certain foods.
- Psychological Factors:
Diarrhea may occur due to psychological factors (fear and anxiety)
Clinical Manifestations - Diarrhea
- Abdomen Pain
- Mucous membranes were dry mouth and lips
- Sunken Fontanel
- Weight loss
- No appetite
Nursing Assessment Nursing Care Plan for Diarrhea
Psychological examination: general condition seemed weak, composmentis consciousness to coma, high body temperature, rapid and weak pulse, breathing rather quickly.
Inspection: sunken eyes, large fontanel, mucous membranes, mouth and dry lips, weight loss, anal redness.
Percussion: presence of abdominal distension.
Palpation: less elastic skin turgor
Auscultation: bowel sounds hearing.
Checking the level of growth and development.
Diarrhea in children will experience disruption due to child dehydration so that body weight decreased.
Stool examination, complete blood and doodenum intubation is to find the cause of the quantitative and qualitative.
Nursing Diagnosis Nursing Care Plan for Diarrhea
- Acute pain related to hiperperistaltik, irritation perirektal fissure.
- Family anxiety related to changes in child health status
- Lack of family knowledge about the condition, prognosis and treatment needs related to limited exposure information, misinterpretation of information and / or cognitive limitations.
- Imbalanced Nutrition: less than body requirements related to disorders of nutrient absorption and increase intestinal peristalsis.
- Child anxiety related to separation from parents, the new environmental.