Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones become so thin and fragile that they may break easily and lead to walking difficulty, permanent disability, or even death. This leads to skeletal weakness and an increased risk of fractures, especially of the hip, wrist, upper arm, pelvis and spine.
Osteoporosis is one of the many conditions that usually occur in elderly especially menopausal women.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has subsequently acknowledged osteoporosis as a priority health issue.
There are some key risk factors that make someone more prone to developing osteoporosis:
- Previous history of bone fractures
- A family history of osteoporosis
- Aged 50 years or older
- Post menopause
- Removed ovaries or early menopause
- Low level of calcium in diet
- Inadequate exposure to natural light
- Low physical activity
- Thin or 'small-boned
- Caucasian or Asian ancestry
- Regular alcohol consumption
Nursing Diagnosis for Osteoporosis
1. Chronic Pain
2. Disturbed Body Image
3. Self-Care Deficit
4. Imbalanced Nutrition, Less Than Body Requirements
5. Impaired Physical Mobility
6. Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity
7. Risk for Injury
Expected Outcomes Nursing Care Plan for Osteoporosis:
1. Client will experience increased comfort and decreased pain.
2. Client will express positive feelings about himself.
3. Client will perform activities of daily living within normal limits.
4. Client will maintain adequate food intake.
5. Client will maintain joint mobility and range of motion.
6. Client will demonstrate integrity intact skin.
7. Client will demonstrate the steps to prevent injury.
Nursing Interventions - Nursing Care Plan for Osteoporosis
1. Explain all treatments, tests, and procedures. For example, if the patient underwent surgery, explain all procedures, preoperative and postoperative, and care for patients and their families.
2. Make sure the client and his family clearly understand the prescribed drug regimen. Tell them how to recognize a significant adverse reactions. Instruct them to immediately report it.
3. Inform the need for regular gynecological examinations. Also instructed him to report the abnormal vaginal bleeding right away, to detect the hormone estrogen.
4. If clients take calcium supplements, encouraging liberal fluid intake to help maintain adequate urine output and thus avoid kidney stones, hypercalcemia, and hypercalciuria.
5. Tell the client to report pain immediately, especially after trauma.
6. Explain osteoporosis on the client and his family so they can act to prevent fractures.
7. Instruct the patient to eat foods rich in calcium. Explain that the type II osteoporosis can be prevented with adequate calcium intake and regular exercise. Hormonal and fluoride treatments can also help prevent osteoporosis.
8. Strengthen the patient's efforts to adapt, and shows how his condition has improved or stabilized.
9. Necessary, referring to an occupational therapist or health nurse to help everyday activities at home.